In return, the railways contributed to general economic developments, and the indirect benefits for business and employment were significant. Unlike canals , railways extended into new territories and pushed the agricultural and timber frontiers westward and northward. The effect of railways on emerging urban centres was crucial and dramatic.
Toronto's dominant position in south-central Ontario was clearly established by its rail connections. It benefited from its connections with the Great Western and its central place on the GTR, neither of which it had done much to help build.
Wearable Computing | The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
Toronto was also home to the first locomotive built in Canada; the Toronto No. While railways were also constructed in sparsely populated and nonindustrial areas such as Newfoundland, they were not as profitable and tended to diminish in size and importance over time. The development of a Newfoundland Railway system is a case in point. The railways played an integral role in the process of industrialization , tying together and opening up new markets while, at the same time creating a demand for fuel, iron and steel, locomotives, and rolling stock.
The pioneer wood-burning locomotives required great amounts of fuel, and "wooding-up" stations were required at regular intervals along the line. Entrepreneurs invested in the manufacture of almost everything that went into the operation of the railway, and consequently railways had a positive effect on levels of employment. Some small towns became railway service and maintenance centres, with the bulk of the population dependent on the railway shops; for example, the Cobourg Car Works employed workers in The railway also had a decisive impact on the physical characteristics of Canadian cities: hotels and industries were built around tracks, yards, and stations, making the railway a central feature of the urban landscape.
The railway greatly stimulated engineering , particularly with the demand for bridges and tunnels.
Canadians contributed a few inventions, notably the first successful braking system W. Robinson, and the rotary snowplough J. Elliott, ; developed further by O. Jull , which made possible safe, regular travel in Canadian winters. The great Canadian railway engineer Sir Sandford Fleming devised his famous zone system of time to overcome the confusion of clocks varying from community to community along the rail routes. The second phase of railway building in Canada came with Confederation in As historian George Stanley wrote in The Canadians , "Bonds of steel as well as of sentiment were needed to hold the new Confederation together.
Without railways there would be and could be no Canada. Because of the grand scale of the new nation, and the fact that political considerations often overrode economic realities e. The Intercolonial was owned and operated by the federal government and was largely financed with British loans backed by imperial guarantees. Despite the badgering of commissioners determined to make political advantage, Fleming built the Intercolonial to the highest standards and completed it by In , British Columbia was lured into Confederation with the promise of a transcontinental railway within 10 years.
The proposed line — 1, km longer than the first US transcontinental — represented an enormous expenditure for a nation of only three and a half million people. Two syndicates vied for the contract, and it was secretly promised to Sir Hugh Allan in return for financial support for the Conservatives during the closely contested election.
Completion of the railway was one of the great engineering feats of the day and owed much to the indefatigable supervision of William Van Horne and the determination of Sir John A. Whether or not the country received adequate compensation for this largesse has been hotly debated ever since. Macdonald's controversial decision in favour of an expensive all-Canadian route seemed to be vindicated during the North-West Rebellion ; how would the American government have reacted to Canadian troops moving across American territory? The CPR also had a profound effect on the settlement of the Prairie West , and new cities, from Winnipeg to Vancouver, were heavily dependent on the railway.
Other western towns were strung out along the railway like beads on a string. The flood of immigrants to the Prairie West after and the dramatic increase in agriculture soon proved the CPR inadequate, and a third phase of railway expansion began. Numerous branches sprouted in the West, of which the most notable was the Canadian Northern Railway , owned by the two bold entrepreneurs Donald Mann and William Mackenzie.
The Canadian Northern grew by leasing and absorbing other lines; it also constructed new links to Regina , Saskatoon , Prince Albert , and Edmonton , and pushed on through the Yellowhead Pass. Though sometimes portrayed as rapacious promoters, Mackenzie and Mann built their railway to serve western needs that were not being met by the CPR, and they invested most of their own fortunes in the enterprise. Meanwhile, Prime Minister Laurier enthusiastically encouraged the development of a third transcontinental railway by the Grand Trunk company, now led by Charles M.
Although it would have made sense for the GTR to co-operate with the Canadian Northern company, mutual jealousies made such co-operation difficult. Such encyclopedias included The Encyclopedia of Philosophy first published in and now in its second edition , and Elsevier's Handbooks In Economics  series. Encyclopedias of at least one volume in size exist for most if not all academic disciplines , including, typically, such narrow topics such as bioethics and African-American history.
By the late 20th century, encyclopedias were being published on CD-ROMs for use with personal computers. Microsoft 's Encarta , launched in , was a landmark example as it had no printed equivalent. Articles were supplemented with video and audio files as well as numerous high-quality images.
After sixteen years, Microsoft discontinued the Encarta line of products in Traditional encyclopedias are written by a number of employed text writers, usually people with an academic degree , and distributed as proprietary content. Encyclopedias are essentially derivative from what has gone before, and particularly in the 19th century, copyright infringement was common among encyclopedia editors. However, modern encyclopedias are not merely larger compendia, including all that came before them.
To make space for modern topics, valuable material of historic use regularly had to be discarded, at least before the advent of digital encyclopedias.
Moreover, the opinions and world views of a particular generation can be observed in the encyclopedic writing of the time. For these reasons, old encyclopedias are a useful source of historical information, especially for a record of changes in science and technology. As of , old encyclopedias whose copyright has expired , such as the edition of Britannica , are also the only free content English encyclopedias released in print form.
However, works such as the Great Soviet Encyclopedia , which were created in the public domain, [ citation needed ] exist as free content encyclopedias in other languages. The concept of a new free encyclopedia began with the Interpedia proposal on Usenet in , which outlined an Internet-based online encyclopedia to which anyone could submit content and that would be freely accessible.
Early projects in this vein included Everything2 and Open Site. It was not until Nupedia and later Wikipedia that a stable free encyclopedia project was able to be established on the Internet. The English Wikipedia, which was started in , became the world's largest encyclopedia in at the , article stage . By late , Wikipedia had produced over two million articles in more than 80 languages with content licensed under the copyleft GNU Free Documentation License.
As of August , Wikipedia had over 3 million articles in English and well over 10 million combined in over languages. Wikipedia currently has 5,, articles in English. Since , other free encyclopedias like the Chinese-language Baidu Baike and Hudong , as well as English language encyclopedias like Citizendium and Knol have appeared. Knol has been discontinued.
An encyclopedia's hierarchical structure and evolving nature is particularly adaptable to a digital format , and all major printed general encyclopedias had moved to this method of delivery by the end of the 20th century. Additionally, they can include media which are impossible to store in the printed format, such as animations , audio and video.
Hyperlinking between conceptually related items is also a significant benefit, although even Diderot's encyclopedia had cross-referencing. On-line encyclopedias offer the additional advantage of being dynamic: new information can be presented almost immediately, rather than waiting for the next release of a static format, as with a disk- or paper-based publication. Many printed encyclopedias traditionally published annual supplemental volumes "yearbooks" to update events between editions, as a partial solution to the problem of staying up-to-date, but this of course required the reader to check both the main volumes and the supplemental volumes.
Some disk-based encyclopedias offer subscription-based access to online updates, which are then integrated with the content already on the user's hard disk in a manner not possible with a printed encyclopedia. Information in a printed encyclopedia necessarily needs some form of hierarchical structure. Traditionally, the method employed is to present the information ordered alphabetically by the article title. However, with the advent of dynamic electronic formats the need to impose a pre-determined structure is less necessary.
Nonetheless, most electronic encyclopedias still offer a range of organizational strategies for the articles, such as by subject, area, or alphabetically.
Search the Encyclopedia
Digital encyclopedias also offer greater search abilities than printed versions. While the printed versions rely on indexes to assist in searching for topics, computer accessible versions allow searching through article text for keywords or phrases. Specialized encyclopedias may offer a more comprehensive content. For example, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ADAM Medical Encyclopedia which includes over 4, articles about diseases, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries , the Wiki Encyclopedia of Law and the Encyclopedia of Earth all provide a more focused list of topics.
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, recent works include the Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam prepared in 10 volumes by The Encyclopaedia Islamica Foundation,  the Encyclopaedia of Contemporary Islam published as a four-volume English encyclopedia including around entries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Chinese encyclopedia. See also: History of wikis. The Beginnings of Western Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 6 March Of real use to the people': The Tanjore printing press and the spread of useful knowledge.
Ramakrishna Bhat. Varahamihira's Brihat Samhita. Motilal Banarsidass. Oxford University Press. Alfred A. Mark, Joshua J. Last modified April 28, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 28 Apr Written by Joshua J. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Mark published on 28 April Listen to this article , narrated by James Lloyd. Remove Ads Advertisement.
fr.ineqolyjubul.tk Bibliography Diodorus Siculus on Semiramis Herodotus. University of Chicago Press, Kramer, S. The Sumerians. Kriwaczek, P. Thomas Dunne Books, Leick, G. The A to Z of Mesopotamia. Scarecrow Press, Scarre, C. Ancient Civilizations. Pearson, Van De Mieroop, M. The Ancient Mesopotamian City. About the Author Joshua J.
Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. Related Content Filters: All. Articles The ancient Near East, and the Fertile Crescent in particular Among the most interesting and revealing artifacts discovered from Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be described in the same Hammurabi was the first king of the Babylonian Empire, reigning Help us write more We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization.
Martin's Griffin 27 March Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Babylon Myth and Reality. Hammurabi's Code of Laws.