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  2. Tapio Koski (Author of The Phenomenology and the Philosophy of Running)
  3. Stanford Libraries
  4. Research – examples

Crust, L. Published in the International Journal of Sport Psychology , this study provided a more ecologically valid approach compared to controlled lab experiments to understanding the psychological effects of short walks min. The good news is that moderate intensity walking in both environments was related to positive changes in self-esteem and affective states feelings. Countryside walks resulted in significantly higher levels of post-walk self-esteem and reported enjoyment. While countryside walks appear to provide some advantages in terms of psychological health it is also evident that larger numbers of people live close by, and have access to urban parks that also provide important opportunities to engage in physical activity and benefit from green exercise.

Evans, A. B, Bright, J. Interview data from 24 participants coupled with observation data gathered throughout the programme highlighted how participants initially negative and stereotypical views about people with physical disabilities were challenged by their participation in wheelchair basketball sessions. Participants increasingly came to view physically disabled individuals as capable and talented athletes as the challenging nature of wheelchair basketball became clear. Pavey, A. Published in Sociological Research Online , this in-depth qualitative study of 42 participants investigated lived experiences of diagnosis delivery of Motor Neurone Disease MND.

As part of the sociological research, participants were asked to provide insight into their experiences of the diagnostic journey. Relatively few previous studies of MND within the UK health care system have employed qualitative approaches to examine the diagnostic journey from a patient perspective. Findings highlighted the need for professional training to emphasize the importance of fostering greater levels of tact, sensitivity and empathy towards patients diagnosed with devastating illnesses such as MND.

More information is available on request from Dr Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson. B and Stead, D. This study investigated the embodied experiences of professional elite Australasian rugby league migrants in the United Kingdom, including Australians, New Zealanders, Pacific Islanders and Papua New Guineans. Forty-one long- distance runners aged 50 to 72 years were compared with 41 matched community controls to examine associations of repetitive, long-term physical impact running with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Roentgenograms of hands, lateral lumbar spine, and knees were assessed without knowledge of running status.

A computed tomographic scan of the first lumbar vertebra was performed to quantitate bone mineral content. There were no differences between groups in joint space narrowing, crepitation, joint stability, or symptomatic osteoarthritis. Running is associated with increased bone mineral but not, in this cross-sectional study, with clinical osteoarthritis.

Dissociation between running economy and running performance in elite Kenyan distance runners. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy RE and performance in a homogenous group of competitive Kenyan distance runners. Maximal aerobic capacity VO2max Leg anthropometry was assessed and moment arm of the Achilles tendon determined.

The dissociation between RE and running performance in this homogenous group of runners would suggest that RE can be compensated by other factors to maintain high performance levels and is in line with the idea that RE is only one of many factors explaining elite running performance. During running in place, grid cells integrate elapsed time and distance run. Kraus, Benjamin J. Summary The spatial scale of grid cells may be provided by self-generated motion information or by external sensory information from environmental cues.

To determine whether grid cell activity reflects distance traveled or elapsed time independent of external information, we recorded grid cells as animals ran in place on a treadmill. Grid cell activity was only weakly influenced by location but most grid cells and other neurons recorded from the same electrodes strongly signaled a combination of distance and time, with some signaling only distance or time.

Grid cells were more sharply tuned to time and distance than non-grid cells. Many grid cells exhibited multiple firing fields during treadmill running , parallel to the periodic firing fields observed in open fields, suggesting a common mode of information processing. These observations indicate that, in the absence of external dynamic cues, grid cells integrate self-generated distance and time information to encode a representation of experience. Validity of treadmill-derived critical speed on predicting 5,meter track- running performance.

Five thousand meter performance was determined on a m running track. Five thousand meter running performance speed : 4. Predictions from multiple regression analyses with CS and D' as predictor variables were not significantly different from actual running performance The SEE across all models and predictions was approximately 65 seconds or 0.

The results of this study have shown the importance of aerobic and anaerobic energy system contribution to predict 5,m running performance. Using estimates of CS and D' is valuable for predicting performance over race distances of 5, m. Relationship between metabolic cost and muscular coactivation across running speeds. Muscular coactivation can help stabilise a joint, but contrasting results in previous gait studies highlight that it is not clear whether this is metabolically beneficial. The aim was to assess the relationship between the metabolic cost of running and muscular coactivation across different running speeds , in addition to assessing the reliability and precision of lower limb muscular coactivation.

Eleven female recreational runners visited the laboratory on two separate occasions. On both occasions subjects ran at three speeds 9. Oxygen consumption and electromyographic data were simultaneously recorded during the final two minutes of each speed. Temporal coactivations of lower limb muscles during the stance phase were calculated. Five muscles were assessed: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius lateralis.

Nonparametric correlations revealed at least one significant, positive association between lower limb muscular coactivation and the metabolic cost of running for each speed. The length of tibialis anterior activation and muscular coactivation of the biceps femoris-tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius lateralis-tibialis anterior decreased with speed. These results show that longer coactivations of the proximal rectus femoris-biceps femoris and vastus lateralis-biceps femoris and leg extensor rectus femoris-gastrocnemius lateralis muscles were related to a greater metabolic cost of running , which could be detrimental to performance.

The decrease in coactivation in the flexor and distal muscles at faster speeds occurs due to the shorter duration of tibialis anterior activation as speed increases, yet stability may be maintained. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners. The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known.

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Of the 1, records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Running economy and body composition between competitive and recreational level distance runners. The aim of the present study was to compare running economy between competitive and recreational level athletes at their individual ventilatory thresholds on track and to compare body composition parameters that are related to the individual running economy measured on track.

During the running tests, athletes wore portable oxygen analyzer. Running economy at the first ventilatory threshold was not significantly related to any of the measured body composition values or leg mass ratios either in the competitive or in the recreational runners group.

This study showed that there was no difference in the running economy between distance runners with different performance level when running on track, while there was a difference in the second ventilatory threshold speed in different groups of distance runners.

A mechanical model of metatarsal stress fracture during distance running. A model of metatarsal mechanics has been proposed as a link between the high incidence of second and third metatarsal stress fractures and the large stresses measured beneath the second and third metatarsal heads during distance running.

Eight discrete piezoelectric vertical stress transducers were used to record the forefoot stresses of 21 male distance runners. Based upon load bearing area estimates derived from footprints, plantar forces were estimated. Highest force was estimated beneath the second and first metatarsal head Considering the toe as a hinged cantilever and the metatarsal as a proximally attached rigid cantilever allowed estimation of metatarsal midshaft bending strain, shear, and axial forces. Bending strain was estimated to be greatest in the second metatarsal mu epsilon , a value 6.

Predicted third, fourth, and fifth metatarsal strains ranged between and mu epsilon. Shear force estimates were also greatest in the second metatarsal Axial forces were highest in the first metatarsal Although a first order model, these data highlight the structural demands placed upon the second metatarsal, a location of high metatarsal stress fracture incidence during distance running.

Optimal speeds for walking and running , and walking on a moving walkway. Many aspects of steady human locomotion are thought to be constrained by a tendency to minimize the expenditure of metabolic cost.


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This paper has three parts related to the theme of energetic optimality: 1 a brief review of energetic optimality in legged locomotion, 2 an examination of the notion of optimal locomotion speed , and 3 an analysis of walking on moving walkways, such as those found in some airports. First, I describe two possible connotations of the term "optimal locomotion speed :" that which minimizes the total metabolic cost per unit distance and that which minimizes the net cost per unit distance total minus resting cost. Minimizing the total cost per distance gives the maximum range speed and is a much better predictor of the speeds at which people and horses prefer to walk naturally.

Minimizing the net cost per distance is equivalent to minimizing the total daily energy intake given an idealized modern lifestyle that requires one to walk a given distance every day--but it is not a good predictor of animals' walking speeds. Next, I critique the notion that there is no energy-optimal speed for running , making use of some recent experiments and a review of past literature.

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Finally, I consider the problem of predicting the speeds at which people walk on moving walkways--such as those found in some airports. I present two substantially different theories to make predictions. The first theory, minimizing total energy per distance , predicts that for a range of low walkway speeds , the optimal absolute speed of travel will be greater--but the speed relative to the walkway smaller--than the optimal walking speed on stationary ground.

At higher walkway speeds , this theory predicts that the person will stand still. The second theory is based on the assumption that the human optimally reconciles the sensory conflict between the forward speed that the eye sees and the walking speed that the legs feel and tries to equate the best estimate of the forward. Eighteen male submin 5-km runners completed treadmill testing, and three m time trials wearing control shoes and identical shoes with and g of discreetly added mass.

We measured rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production and calculated metabolic rates for the treadmill tests, and we recorded overall running time for the time trials. Adding mass to the shoes significantly increased metabolic rate at 3. While wearing the control shoes, participants ran the m time trial in Times averaged 0.

Our data demonstrate that laboratory-based running economy measurements can accurately predict changes in distance-running race performance due to shoe modifications. Adjustments with running speed reveal neuromuscular adaptations during landing associated with high mileage running training. It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations before and during the first half of stance and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. There were few differences in prelanding activation levels, but HM runners displayed lower activations of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and semitendinosus muscles postlanding, and these differences increased with running speed. HM runners also demonstrated higher initial knee stiffness during the impact phase compared with LM runners, which was associated with an earlier peak knee flexion velocity, and both were relatively unchanged by running speed.

In contrast, LM runners had higher knee stiffness during the slightly later weight acceptance phase and the disparity was amplified with increases in speed. It was concluded that initial knee joint stiffness might predominantly be governed by tendon stiffness rather than muscular activations before landing. Estimated elastic work about the ankle was found to be higher in the HM runners, which might play a role in reducing weight acceptance phase muscle activation levels and improve muscle activation efficiency with running training.

This study is the first to demonstrate changes in neuromuscular conditioning with high mileage training, mainly characterized by. Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Laboratory and field assessments were made on eighteen male distance runners. Performance data were obtained for distances of 3. Multiple regression analysis showed that the treadmill velocity corresponding to the OPLA was most closely related to performance and the addition of other factors did not significantly raise the multiple R values suggesting that these other variables may interact with the purpose of keeping plasma lactates low during distance races.

Runners appear to set a race pace which allows the utilization of the largest possible VO2 which just avoids the exponential rise in plasma lactate. Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners. Running economy RE is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running , and is determined by measuring the steady-state consumption of oxygen VO2 and the respiratory exchange ratio.

Taking body mass BM into consideration, runners with good RE use less energy and therefore less oxygen than runners with poor RE at the same velocity. There is a strong association between RE and distance running performance, with RE being a better predictor of performance than maximal oxygen uptake VO2max in elite runners who have a similar VO2max. RE is traditionally measured by running on a treadmill in standard laboratory conditions, and, although this is not the same as overground running , it gives a good indication of how economical a runner is and how RE changes over time.

In order to determine whether changes in RE are real or not, careful standardisation of footwear, time of test and nutritional status are required to limit typical error of measurement. Under controlled conditions, RE is a stable test capable of detecting relatively small changes elicited by training or other interventions. When tracking RE between or within groups it is important to account for BM. As VO2 during submaximal exercise does not, in general, increase linearly with BM, reporting RE with respect to the 0.

A number of physiological and biomechanical factors appear to influence RE in highly trained or elite runners. These include metabolic adaptations within the muscle such as increased mitochondria and oxidative enzymes, the ability of the muscles to store and release elastic energy by increasing the stiffness of the muscles, and more efficient mechanics leading to less energy wasted on braking forces and excessive vertical oscillation. Interventions to improve RE are constantly sought after by athletes, coaches and sport scientists. Two interventions that have received recent widespread attention are strength training and.

Ground reaction forces and kinematics in distance running in older-aged men. The biomechanics of distance running has not been studied before in older-aged runners but may be different than in younger-aged runners because of musculoskeletal degeneration at older age. This study aimed at determining whether the stance phase kinematics and ground reaction forces in running are different between younger- and older-aged men. Lower-extremity kinematics using three-dimensional motion analysis and ground reaction forces GRF using a force plate were assessed in 16 older-aged yr and 13 younger-aged yr well-trained male distance runners running at a self-selected SRS and a controlled CRS speed of 3.

The older subjects ran at significantly lower self-selected speeds than the younger subjects mean 3. In both speed conditions, the older runners exhibited significantly more knee flexion at heel strike and significantly less knee flexion and extension range of motion. No age group differences were present in subtalar joint motion. Impact peak force 1. Maximal peak vertical and anteroposterior forces and impulses were significantly lower in the older runners at the SRS.

The biomechanics of running is different between older- and younger-aged runners on several relevant parameters. The larger impact peak force and initial loading rate indicate a loss of shock-absorbing capacity in the older runners.

This may increase their susceptibility to lower-extremity overuse injuries. Moreover, it emphasizes the focus on optimizing cushioning properties in the design and prescription of running shoes and suggests that older-aged runners should be cautious with running under conditions of high impact. Keeping speed and distance for aligned motion. The cohesive collective motion flocking, swarming of autonomous agents is ubiquitously observed and exploited in both natural and man-made settings, thus, minimal models for its description are essential.

In a model with continuous space and time we find that if two particles arrive symmetrically in a plane at a large angle, then i radial repulsion and ii linear self-propelling toward a fixed preferred speed are sufficient for them to depart at a smaller angle.

For this local gain of momentum explicit velocity alignment is not necessary, nor are adhesion or attraction, inelasticity or anisotropy of the particles, or nonlinear drag. With many particles obeying these microscopic rules of motion we find that their spatial confinement to a square with periodic boundaries which is an indirect form of attraction leads to stable macroscopic ordering. As a function of the strength of added noise we see—at finite system sizes—a critical slowing down close to the order-disorder boundary and a discontinuous transition.

After varying the density of particles at constant system size and varying the size of the system with constant particle density we predict that in the infinite system size or density limit the hysteresis loop disappears and the transition becomes continuous. We note that animals, humans, drones, etc. Thus, for them velocity-based continuous models can provide higher precision than coordinate-based models. An additional characteristic and realistic feature of the model is that convergence to the ordered state is fastest at a finite density, which is in contrast to models applying discontinuous explicit velocity alignments and discretized time.

To summarize, we find that the investigated model can provide a minimal description of flocking. As a function of the strength of added noise we see--at finite system sizes--a critical slowing down close to the order-disorder boundary and a discontinuous transition. How do prosthetic stiffness, height and running speed affect the biomechanics of athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations? Limited available information describes how running -specific prostheses and running speed affect the biomechanics of athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations. Accordingly, we quantified the effects of prosthetic stiffness, height and speed on the biomechanics of five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations during treadmill running.

Each athlete performed a set of running trials with 15 different prosthetic model, stiffness and height combinations. We collected ground reaction forces GRFs during each trial. Prosthetic stiffness, height and running speed each affected biomechanics. Thus, prosthetic stiffness, but not height, likely influences distance running performance more than sprinting performance for athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations.

Each set of trials began with the athlete running on a force-measuring treadmill at 3 m s -1 , subsequent trials incremented by 1 m s -1 until they achieved their fastest attainable speed. Lower-body determinants of running economy in male and female distance runners. A variety of training approaches have been shown to improve running economy in well-trained athletes. However, there is a paucity of data exploring lower-body determinants that may affect running economy and account for differences that may exist between genders.

Correlations between running economy and kinetic measures peak force, peak power, and time to peak force for both genders were unclear. Although both leg stiffness and moment arm length are highly related to running economy, it seems that no single lower-body measure can completely explain differences in running economy between individuals or genders. Running economy is therefore likely determined from the sum of influences from multiple lower-body attributes.

Influence of middle- distance running on muscular micro RNAs. A specific subset of micro RNAs miRs , including miR and miR, is specifically expressed in muscle tissue, so that they are currently defined as muscular miRs myomiRs. To further elucidate the role of myomiRs in muscle biology, we measured miRa and miR in plasma of 28 middle-age recreational athletes.

The plasma concentration of miRa and miR, the serum concentration of creatine kinase CK and high-sensitivity HS cardiac troponin T cTnT , as well as capillary lactate, were measured before and immediately after the run.

Tapio Koski (Author of The Phenomenology and the Philosophy of Running)

In multivariate analysis only post-exercise capillary lactate was found to be independently associated with running time. A significant and independent correlation was observed between plasma variations of the two miRs, but not with other physiological or laboratory parameters. The results of this study suggest that the biological significance of miRa and variation after middle- distance running parallels but not overlaps the release of biomarkers of nonspecific tissue damage. Factors affecting the energy cost of level running at submaximal speed. Metabolic measurement is still the criterion for investigation of the efficiency of mechanical work and for analysis of endurance performance in running.

Metabolic demand may be expressed either as the energy spent per unit distance energy cost of running , C r or as energy demand at a given running speed running economy. Children show a higher C r than adults. Elastic energy storage and reuse also contribute to the variability of C r. The increase in C r with increasing running speed due to increase in mechanical work is blunted till m s -1 by the increase in vertical stiffness and the decrease in ground contact time. Women show a C r similar to men of similar body mass, despite differences in gait pattern. The superiority of black African runners is presumably related to their leg architecture and better elastic energy storage and reuse.

The effect of three surface conditions, speed and running experience on vertical acceleration of the tibia during running. Research has focused on parameters that are associated with injury risk, e. These parameters can be influenced by running on different surfaces or at different running speeds , but the relationship between them is not completely clear. Understanding the relationship may result in training guidelines to reduce the injury risk. In this study, thirty-five participants with three different levels of running experience were recruited. Participants ran on three different surfaces concrete, synthetic running track, and woodchip trail at two different running speeds : a self-selected comfortable speed and a fixed speed of 3.

Vertical acceleration of the lower leg was measured with an accelerometer. The vertical acceleration was significantly lower during running on the woodchip trail in comparison with the synthetic running track and the concrete, and significantly lower during running at lower speed in comparison with during running at higher speed on all surfaces. No significant differences in vertical acceleration were found between the three groups of runners at fixed speed. Higher self-selected speed due to higher performance level also did not result in higher vertical acceleration.

These results may show that running on a woodchip trail and slowing down could reduce the injury risk at the tibia. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel- running activity. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy i.

For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity VO2max during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed , with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males.

Moreover, males but not females from the S lines exhibited. Stride-to-stride variability and complexity between novice and experienced runners during a prolonged run at anaerobic threshold speed. Motor control, related to running performance and running related injuries, is affected by progression of fatigue during a prolonged run. Distance runners are usually recommended to train at or slightly above anaerobic threshold AT speed for improving performance.

However, running at AT speed may result in accelerated fatigue. It is not clear how one adapts running gait pattern during a prolonged run at AT speed and if there are differences between runners with different training experience. To compare characteristics of stride-to-stride variability and complexity during a prolonged run at AT speed between novice runners NR and experienced runners ER. Mean, coefficient of variation CV and scaling exponent alpha of stride intervals were calculated for each interval of each group.

This study revealed mean stride interval significantly increased with running time in a non-linear trend p run. Alpha was significantly different between groups at T2, T5 and T6, and nonlinearly changed with running time for both groups with slight differences.

These findings provided insights into how the motor control system adapts to progression of fatigue and evidences that long-term training enhances motor control. Although both ER and NR could regulate gait complexity to maintain AT speed throughout the prolonged run , ER also regulated stride interval variability to achieve the goal. Published by Elsevier B. The start in speed skating: from running to gliding.

The purpose of this study was to describe the push-off kinematics in speed skating using three-dimensional coordinates of elite male sprinters during the first part of a speed skating sprint. The velocity of the mass center of the skater's body VC, is decomposed into an "extension" velocity component VE, which is associated with the shortening and lengthening of the leg segment and a "rotational" velocity component Vr, which is the result of the rotation of the leg segment about the toe of the skate.

It can be concluded that the mechanics of the first strokes of a sprint differ considerably from the mechanics of strokes later on. The first push-offs take place against fixed location on the ice. In these " running -like" push-offs the contribution of Vr in the forward direction is larger than the extension component Ve. Later on, the strokes are characterized by a gliding push-off in which Ve increases.

In these gliding push-offs no direct relation exists between forward velocity of the skater and the extension in the joints. This allows skaters to obtain much higher velocities than can be obtained during running. Paediatric low speed vehicle run -over fatalities in Queensland. Child pedestrian fatalities associated with motor vehicles reversing or moving at low speed are difficult to identify in surveillance data. This study aims to determine the incidence of fatalities associated with what is thought to be an under-reported and preventable fatal injury mechanism. The term low speed vehicle run -over LSVRO incidents encompasses pedestrian fatalities where vehicles run -over a child at low speed.

Data were obtained for children aged years in the Australian state of Queensland January December There were 15 deaths 12 boys and 3 girls during rate Almost half of the fatalities were caused by a four wheel drive 4WD vehicle; large family sedans were involved in four fatalities, and heavy vehicles were involved in three deaths. In 11 of the fatalities, parents were the drivers of the vehicle involved mothers 5; fathers 6. In nine, the vehicle involved was reversing before it came in contact with the child.

The unique data provided by the child death review team has signalled that LSVRO fatalities are a significant problem in Queensland. Fourteen experienced male amateur ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age groups, took part in a km run. Blood samples for liver and skeletal muscle damage indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run , after 25, 50, 75 and km, and 24 hours after termination of the run. A considerable increase in alanine aminotransferase ALT and aspartate aminotransferase AST was observed with the distance covered p Matching optical flow to motor speed in virtual reality while running on a treadmill.

They were asked to match the visual speed of the scene to their running speed -i. For each trial, participants indicated whether the scene was moving slower or faster than they were running.

Visual speed was adjusted according to their response using a staircase until the Point of Subjective Equality PSE was reached, i. For all three running speeds , participants systematically underestimated the visual speed relative to their actual running speed.

Indeed, the speed of the visual scene had to exceed the actual running speed in order to be perceived as equivalent to the treadmill speed.

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We suggest that this fact should be taken into consideration to improve the design of attractive treadmill-mediated virtual environments enhancing engagement into physical activity for healthier lifestyles and disease prevention and care. Effect of different training methods on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of m sprint running. J Strength Cond Res 32 5 : , This study examined the effects of 2 different training methods relevant to sloping surface on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of m sprint running. Twenty recreationally active students were assigned into one of 3 groups: combined training Com , horizontal training H , and control C group.

Speed maintenance and deceleration phases were divided into distances with m intervals, and running time t , running velocity RV , step frequency SF , and step length SL were measured at preexercise, and postexercise period. After 8 weeks of training program, t was shortened by 3. Running velocity also increased for totally m of running distance by 4. At the speed maintenance phase, although t and maximal RV RVmax found to be statistically unaltered during overall phase, t was found to be decreased, and RVmax was preceded by 10 m in distance in both training groups.

Step length was increased at m, and SF was decreased at m in H group.

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Research – examples

Step length was increased with concomitant decrease in SF at m in Com group. Both training groups maintained the RVmax with a great percentage at the speed maintenance phase. In conclusion, although both training methods resulted in an increase in running time and RV, Com training method was more prominently effective method in improving RV, and this improvement was originated from the positive changes in SL during the speed maintaining phase. Limitations to maximum running speed on flat curves. Why is maximal running speed reduced on curved paths? The leading explanation proposes that an increase in lateral ground reaction force necessitates a decrease in peak vertical ground reaction force, assuming that maximum leg extension force is the limiting factor.

Yet, no studies have directly measured these forces or tested this critical assumption. We measured maximum sprint velocities and ground reaction forces for five male humans sprinting along a straight track and compared them to sprints along circular tracks of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 m radii. Circular track sprint trials were performed either with or without a tether that applied centripetal force to the center of mass. Sprinters generated significantly smaller peak resultant ground reaction forces during normal curve sprinting compared to straight sprinting. This provides direct evidence against the idea that maximum leg extension force is always achieved and is the limiting factor.

Use of the tether increased sprint speed , but not to expected values. During curve sprinting, the inside leg consistently generated smaller peak forces compared to the outside leg. Several competing biomechanical constraints placed on the stance leg during curve sprinting likely make the inside leg particularly ineffective at generating the ground reaction forces necessary to attain maximum velocities comparable to straight path sprinting. The ability of quadrupeds to redistribute function across multiple stance legs and decouple these multiple constraints may provide a distinct advantage for turning performance.

Matching optical flow to motor speed in virtual reality while running on a treadmill. They were asked to match the visual speed of the scene to their running speed—i. Format Hardcover. Condition Brand New. Description This book describes and analyzes the levels of experience that long-distance running produces. It looks at the kinds of experiences caused by long-distance running, the dimensions contained in these experiences, and their effects on the subjective life-world and well-being of an individual.

This book describes and analyzes the levels of experience that long-distance running produces. Taking a philosophical approach, the analysis presented in this book is founded on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of the body and Martin Heidegger's fundamental ontology.

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Running is a versatile form of physical exercise which does not reveal all of its dimensions at once. These dimensions escape the eye and are not revealed to the runner conceptually, but rather as sensations and emotions. Instead of concentrating on conceptual analysis, this book explores the emotions and experiences and examines the meaning that running has in runners' lives.