Accordingly, journalists across the globe are being trained, in large part, in similar fashions. Similar training needs and approaches continue to this day, increasingly encouraged by universal trends and ties related to globalization, the Internet and social media, new technologies and innovations, media convergence, community journalism, etc.
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Deuze, After all, the better educators understand global journalism education and training-need trends—past and present—the better chance they have of predicting and guiding the field and most effectively training future journalists. While homogeneous educational training trends are clear, there frequently seems to be a disconnect between training systems and actual journalism practice. As Josephi discovered in her analysis of journalism education in countries with limited media freedom— including Cambodia, Palestine, and Croatia—regardless of similar training, different journalism ecosystems and realities lead to different routines.
For instance, she found that journalists worldwide often share democratic universal values. While their education curricula. That said, journalists are encouraged by their training to report more freely when fissures in restrictive systems take place. Scholars worldwide e. Yet in an increasingly networked, globalized world in which international news is merely a hyperlink away, do such biases continue to hold solid ground? And if so, how can they most effectively be tackled? Within such curriculum-related debates, the ideal balance between professional journalism and liberal arts-type classes appears to be hottest—at least in the West Nordenstreng, A global increase in university-related journalism training suggests an increasing appreciation for the liberal arts.
For example, Deuze , p. Such educators are pushing for innovations in journalism education that break down silos and walls, both physically and mentally, in hopes of reimaging journalism education and the ways. The innovations section of this book develops and explores such themes. Global Journalism Education: Laying the Groundwork. As Gaunt explains, the significance of journalism training, especially during times of upheaval, is clear: Journalism training perpetuates or modifies professional journalistic practices and molds the perceptions journalists have of the role and function of the media.
Because journalism training influences the selection and processing of the news, it also has an indirect effect on the way in which we view the world around us. In times of crisis. In fact, Global Journalism Education seems to be the first in 25 years to provide comparative journalism education case studies from six continents.
While the first two focus on Global North countries, the third focuses mostly on the Global South. Journalism education systems worldwide are best understood— and later compared—when placed in context. Since his seminal book, researchers examining media systems have studied such variables and influences e. That said, media systems worldwide have proven to be more complicated than originally anticipated due to factors such as cultural differences and country-based idiosyncrasies e. Still, attempts at classifying media systems continue to be seen as helpful when trying to determine their characteristics and potential influence on journalism education systems and vice versa.
Their perceived professional roles offer unique insights into the role a country assigns the media—a reflection of its deepest values. The Worlds of Journalism Study worldsofjournalism. While gathering related data, they recently reported breaking all comparative communication research records by interviewing more than 27, journalists in 66 countries. Accordingly, this book analyzes education and training systems worldwide and considers their impact on the media, journalists, and their work.
And since journalism education is becoming more universal and homogeneous, it examines this trend as well. UNESCO provides educators in developing countries with universal syllabi and aid based on their stated needs. And WJEC was founded to strengthen journalism education as a global field. To achieve this goal, it adopted the Declaration of Principles at its first conference in Singapore in Two of the key principles follow: o Journalism is a global endeavor; journalism students should learn that despite political and cultural differences, they share important values and professional goals with peers in other nations.
Where practical, journalism education provides students with first-hand experience of the way journalism is practiced in other nations.
This book is divided into three main parts. Part 1, Global Journalism Education Country Case Studies, covers journalism and education challenges and innovations—past, present, and predicted future. These countries alone do not represent the full lay of the land. However, analyzing and comparing them does offer a sense of journalism education history, processes, and happenings in some of the most historically, economically, politically, legally, technologically, socially, and culturally diverse nations.
To ensure uniformity and aid country comparisons, each author covered the same aspects of journalism education and practice in their respective countries see preface for details.
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Section III focuses on the journalism education lay of the land, with an emphasis on how educators are striving to prepare future journalists to stay ahead of the curve while producing quality journalism in a continuously evolving field. Last but not least, a special section on journalism research offers insights into how educators worldwide learn about our field and produce research that influences it.
Part 2, Contextualizing Global Journalism Education, concentrates on making sense of global journalism education as a field. Beginning with Chapter 11, Guy Berger and Joe Foote examine global journalism education and training within and beyond academic borders. In light of this evolving global journalism education ecosystem, the authors argue that journalism educators must embrace the fray and get more involved in hybrid journalism education for the good of the field.
Self examine the evolution of global journalism education as a field and the impact of regional and national journalism education associations in its development.
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They conclude that such organizations, along with nongovernment organizations like the WJEC, are helping journalism education get its international act together. In Chapter 13, Foote and Felix Wao advise journalism educators and trainers worldwide how to examine the quality of their programs. They discuss the advantages and disadvantages of three approaches to quality assurance centered heavily on learning outcomes assessment. They conclude that the most effective type of assessment is multi-faceted. Part 3, Global Innovations in Journalism Education, focuses on innovations in the classroom and beyond.
His chapter is followed by five others in which experts discuss and demonstrate innovative classroom practices through which they teach journalism skills and concepts. She demonstrates this practice, in detail, via an educational ARG case study featuring a game called The Seed. Lewis explain how understanding and describing to students the potential interplay of actors, actants, and audiences in news production can improve journalism education.
He then closes with 10 predictions about where the future of journalism education is headed. And in the epilogue, Robyn S. References Bauman, Z. Liquid modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. Breit, R. Internationalization as de-Westernization of the curriculum: The case of journalism at an Australian university.
Journal of Studies in International Education, 17 2 , De Burgh, H. Making journalists: Diverse models, global issues. London: Routledge.
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Deuze, M. Global journalism education: A conceptual approach. Journalism Studies, 7 1 , Freedom House. Freedom in the world , anxious dictators, wavering democracies: Global freedom under pressure. Journalism education in Europe and North America: An international comparison. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. Gaunt, P. Making the newsmakers: International handbook on journalism training.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Hallin, D. Comparing media systems: Three models of media and politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Comparing media systems beyond the Western world. Hanitzsch, T. Role perceptions and professional values worldwide. Jarvis, J. New relationships, forms, and business models for journalism.
Josephi, B. Journalism education in countries with limited media freedom. Mihailidis, P. News literacy: Global perspectives for the newsroom and the classroom. Nordenstreng, K. Soul-searching at the crossroads of European journalism education. European Journalism Education, Obijiofor, L. Journalism across cultures: an introduction. Taub, A. How stable are democracies? European journalism education. Bristol: Intellect Books. Trump, D. The handbook of journalism studies.
New York, NY: Routledge. Wang, A. The Washington Post. Towards de-westernizing journalism studies. The Handbook of Journalism Studies, Weaver, D. The global journalist in the 21st century. Thereafter, journalism diploma programs were introduced to the following universities: Melbourne , Queensland , Sydney , and Western Australia Lloyd, ; Coleman, see Table 1. By , however, most of these pioneering programs were discontinued since their experimental and inadequately funded curricula proved unpopular.
Beginning in , higher education reform set the stage for journalism diploma programs to re-emerge in 10 newly established Colleges of Advanced Education Stuart, Even so, Australian journalists and academics continue to disagree, sometimes sharply, over the best preparation for professional journalism P. For example, Australian newspapers routinely criticize journalism educators for teaching too much Journalism in the Media Landscape. These media also give news consumers much choice and flexibility in how they get their news. The major newspapers moved to digital-first production in and now have a strong online and mobile media presence.
First, the British penal colony, established in , initially had an authoritarian press system. However, by the mids, independent newspapers, such as The Australian , were circulating without authorization and demanding an end to the penal colony and its cruelties Cryle, When anti-press taxes failed to silence these critics, officials turned to more draconian measures, using defamation and sedition laws to prosecute and imprison outspoken editors and to constrain public speech Lloyd, Australia has since developed into a strong liberal democracy with a pluralist media system.
Yet, there is. Second, ever since the Commonwealth of Australia achieved independence in , demographic factors have shaped media development and the journalism landscape. These factors have ranged from intense post-colonial urbanization and low population density to high levels of migration, beginning in the s. The press has a decentralized structure, with the most important daily newspapers circulating in state capitals Tiffen, By contrast, people in the vast, sparsely populated regional and remote parts of the country depend on two national public service broadcasters, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC, created in and the multicultural, multilingual Special Broadcasting Service SBS, created in In addition, a not-for-profit community media sector emerged in the mids, following persistent campaigns by indigenous and migrant communities for access to their own forms of media and opportunities for self-representation.
Some community media projects, operated by 22, volunteers, now give voice to a plethora of community perspectives. Such perspectives would otherwise go unheard in a national media system plagued by one of the highest concentrations of commercial media ownership in the world Jolly, Mandatory Australian content quotas for commercial television and radio support local media jobs and production of media content that tells Australian stories.
Industry guidelines for media portrayal of. Media diversity, an important public interest policy objective, argues that audience access to a wide variety of news and opinion sources enhances democracy Department of Communications and the Arts, In part to foster media diversity, government controls in place since restrict cross-media ownership to two of the three traditional news platforms television, radio, and newspapers. High levels of print media concentration, dominated by News Corp Australia and Fairfax Media, are unintended by-products of media policy.
This includes successful tabloids in major capital cities, such as Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, Hobart, and Darwin. For journalists, the ultimate impact of this oligopolistic media ownership pattern is limited employer options. A related problem is that those who take principled stands on issues such as commercial interference in news content risk both dismissal and career loss Nash, ; Aedy, Professional Characteristics. Journalism is a medium-sized occupation in Australia. It has experienced strong employment growth over the past decade and has a predicted positive job outlook up until at least Department of Employment, They work an average of 40 hours per week and earn an above-average weekly income approximately U.
Information media and telecommunications is the main industry sector employing journalists, with most jobs in the eastern states of New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland. Only 2. While men At that time, only one in 10 journalists were female Henningham, Men also dominate executive and managerial positions. Monoculturalism in mainstream newsrooms is a long-standing problem because it contrasts sharply with the multiculturalism and multilingualism of the wider society. Research suggests newsrooms need diversity to ensure social inclusion and improve coverage of immigration and citizenship issues Jakubowicz, ; Deuze, ; Forde, An nation study Hanitzsch et al.
Interestingly, journalists from Australia and the United States are more committed to an interpretative but factual mode of reporting than those in Austria, Germany, and Spain Hanitzsch et al. Conversely, when compared to their U. However, despite growing numbers of women in journalism, gender parity in terms of positions of power or salaries remains elusive. Journalism Education, Professional Training, and Research. There is a high national demand for entry into journalism programs and student interest in journalism careers is impressive.
Many journalism graduates aspire to work. As a consequence, most of the journalism graduates entering the labor market each year Hirst, have to settle for other types of media or non-media work e. Teaching and Training Future Newsmakers. In , the most recent year for which detailed figures are available, 4, students studied journalism—3, undergraduates, postgraduates Scanlon, The exact number of journalism faculty is unknown. However, JERAA reports a stable national membership of journalism educators, including over 60 with doctoral qualifications P. This model consists of up to eight university-designated liberal arts units of study, a compulsory journalism major of units of study focused on journalism skills and technologies Nielsen, , and minor options of units of study from cognate disciplines.
However, educational offerings within this structure vary widely according to the distinct institutional history and disciplinary orientation of each program. For example, journalism programs are found. Journalism majors also vary in the curricular mix of career skills and knowledge. Online journalism is a compulsory subject in 14 of the 25 journalism programs they surveyed.
It found no consensus across programs on what makes a person job-ready for journalism work. Moreover, it found constant change in journalism platforms and practices made the task of reaching consensus difficult and, therefore, improbable Nielsen, , pp. Professional education aims to initiate students into the existing knowledge and practices of a specific occupation and provide them with the qualifications necessary to begin work McGuire, Building on the scholarship of teaching and learning, Australian journalism educators have adopted five main approaches to professional journalism education P.
The first, most common, model focuses on training for entry-level jobs in the news industry and relies on mass communication as the cognate disciplinary field. The J-School, Macleay College, and the Australian College of Journalism, all privately owned journalism education providers, adopt this approach. The second model focuses on problem-solving journalism and develops a journalistic modus operandi based on teamwork and social inclusion. The third model develops reflective practice, or critical reflection about workplace experience, as a core competency Sheridan Burns, It focuses on ethical journalistic decision-making in dynamic news environments.
The fourth model focuses on the. The final model focuses on the challenge of new technologies. For example, University of Wollongong journalism researchers have been addressing demands for curriculum renewal, involving digital news platforms and user engagement, through a best practice convergent model M. Overall, such curricular diversity represents a healthy field of study. Journalism Research. Journalism research in Australia usually receives more criticism than accolades from the broader scholarly community. This is because historically journalism educators, as a group, have struggled to build a conventional academic research culture Bromley, ; Turner, Bromley found Australian journalism faculty members, many of them practitioners, struggle to meet institutionalized research targets.
JERAA is currently leading a change of direction in journalism research, which for the past four decades has evolved in an ad hoc manner through annual conferences, collaborative partnerships with. It includes journalism practice as a research paradigm. This has been a seemingly favorable decision for an area of study staffed by many former journalists. Even so, the idea that journalism practice should count as research remains a controversial issue, with little agreement on how to measure the quality and impact of NTROs Turner, There is evidence that many Australian journalism educators tend to have industry-oriented research priorities, preferring to bypass critical, less practical scholarship in favor of research that supports their teaching, contributes to improving professional practice, and, thereby, raises standards of journalism Bromley, ; Richards, Such initiatives include those dealing with improving suicide, mental health, and minority reporting.
The Reporting Diversity project www. Likewise, the Mindframe project www. Furthermore, news criticism and the quest for better journalism are the driving themes in a range of recent monographs on Australian journalism practices and politics.
Professional Connections in Journalism Education. Australian universities are interacting with industry mostly through workplace internship programs, industry reference groups, and the employment of professional journalists as part-time tutors. In addition, there are numerous collaborative activities, such as industry-judged awards for student work, guest lectures, and public seminars on key issues such as press freedom, media coverage of climate change, and workforce futures.
No formal links currently exist between journalism programs. The Australian media industry is notoriously disinterested in journalism education, a problem that has roots in workplace history Ricketson, Many news executives, senior journalists, and industry recruiters began their careers in journalism at a time when newsroom entry required a threeyear cadetship before the s boom in university-level journalism programs.
However, key journalism education providers opposed the move, fearing industry oversight of programs would do little to elevate journalism standards while giving media corporations unwarranted power to reshape the curriculum to their needs. As a result, accreditation of journalism programs remains controversial, despite two decades of debate Green, ; Henningham, ; Herbert, ; Patching, For example, Green proposed using existing mechanisms, such as industry reference groups, to develop more frequent and effective academy-industry interactions.
And Ricketson , argued a closer working relationship requires industry respect for the independence of journalism programs. Ricketson also emphasized that.
More recently, Cullen reported some success in opening up new dialogue between journalism academics and news editors on graduate employability. While employment is only one outcome of university study, journalism academics and graduates alike judge the success and impact of journalism education by the number of graduates who get newsroom jobs each year. The success rate, however, is difficult to quantify. National longitudinal data on graduate employment trends, collected by Graduate Careers Australia, the leading national authority, does not detail journalism graduate outcomes as a separate category.
Therefore, journalism academics rely on informal student and employer feedback to monitor their impact on the industry. One drawback with this kind of anecdotal information, as Putnis et al. After all, it tends to focus on high profile students and job destinations. Research indicates, for example, that only about one percent of graduates will find work at a metropolitan daily newspaper Alysen, ; Cokley et al.
Further, employers are known to be fickle and journalism graduates sometimes compete with graduates in economics, law, sports, politics, or science for specialist beats or publications. However, journalism academics have collected survey data on graduate employment destinations from some specific undergraduate journalism programs, such as Charles Sturt University, the University of Technology, Sydney, and the University of Queensland Green, ; P. These surveys consistently find that about one third of journalism graduates obtain a newsroom job within one year of graduation, while the remaining two thirds find.
The good news is that journalism graduates have excellent employment prospects even outside their chosen occupation. After all, their skill sets and expertise are attractive to a wide range of employers. Further, as Green notes, journalism graduates can be unusually tenacious. Much ongoing debate focuses on the imbalance between the supply of journalism graduates and newsroom demand for new recruits Callaghan, While some critics blame structural constraints, such as the volatility of ICT-based industries or changing occupational profiles Putnis et al.
However, journalism graduates are seen to have better overall job prospects than generalist media graduates because their distinct expertise applies to a wide range of occupational roles Putnis et al. Future Possibilities. The Tertiary Education Quality Standards Agency, a government regulatory body, now requires all universities to provide evidence of graduate learning outcomes that comply with the Australian Qualifications Framework AQF.
The journalism education sector is proactively responding to these accountability demands. In , with funding from the national Office of Learning and Teaching, it created a trans-disciplinary network of. At a time of volatility in the news industry and uncertainty about the future of the profession, a key discussion point is curriculum renewal to prepare graduates for work in convergent journalism Tanner et al. A study of convergent journalism curriculum models found Australian journalism academics struggling to find the right balance between education and training in traditional core skills and digital capabilities M.
This problem is exacerbated by contradictory pressures to produce graduates who are not only job-ready, according to current industry needs, but also prepared to work in this industry given its unknown future. Journalism Education Issues, Challenges, and Innovations. The lack of research on Australian journalism students is a pressing issue in Australian journalism education Hanusch, b.
It also lacks data on why they aspire to enter the profession or where they end up working. Also, through media research, more is known about the online news practices of mainstream news organizations and professional journalists P. First, in practical terms, a curriculum that positions journalism students as passive learners rather than engaged online users runs the risk of alienating students.
In the meanwhile, students will simply create their own diverse, new ways of practicing journalism online. While journalism academics contested the claims by writing op-ed pieces for major online news sites e. Intergenerational change in journalism thus appears to be a potential force for innovation in both journalism and journalism education.
The prospects of success will look brighter if the journalism academy is able to extend its successful track record in developing research-based, innovative curricular materials aimed at raising professional standards to include convergent journalism practices. These would include news reporting of complex issues such as suicide and mental health or community conflicts arising from cultural diversity issues.
For example, the internationalization of higher education and the consequent internationalization of journalism student cohorts are factors driving a more cosmopolitan outlook in Australian journalism education. However, in Australia, as elsewhere, this is proving to be a more difficult curriculum renewal challenge than convergent journalism.
Journalism educators conceptualize global journalism education in different terms Deuze, Indigenous and ethnic minority media guidelines are used in classrooms to improve minority coverage. Yet, such guidelines are inherently global since they require a cross-cultural approach to journalism teaching, which fosters cross-cultural understanding and interactions Loo, She argues that the teaching of freedom of expression and journalistic independence must include research and discussion about their normative value in diverse journalistic contexts.
Deuze , p. The Australian experience confirms this view. Journalism education that prioritizes student engagement, curriculum renewal, and collaborative industry-university links is the best preparation for journalistic work. References Adams, D. Profiles of journalism education: What students are being offered in Australia. Aedy, R. In Media Report [Radio broadcast]. Alysen, B. A strategy for vocational education in the news media at a time of industrial change: Bridging the contradiction in journalism education. The Jana Wendt factor: An empirical study of myths and misconceptions among journalism students.
Australian Journalism Review, 18 1 , Australian Bureau of Statistics Cultural diversity in Australia. Australian Qualifications Framework. Callaghan, R. Selling the dream: Are we offering employability or making a vocational offer? Proceedings of the 20th Annual Teaching Learning Forum. Perth: Edith Cowan University. At the ABC, diversity means British journos.
The Australian. Australian Journalism Review, 33 1 , Cokley, J. Wayward sojourn—Pioneer tertiary journalism education in Australia. MA Thesis. University of Technology, Sydney. Cryle, D. Disreputable profession. Journalists and journalism in colonial Australia. Rockhampton: Central Queensland University Press. Cullen, T. News editors evaluate journalism courses and graduate employability.
Asia Pacific Media Educator, 24 2 , Promises, promises: are Australian universities deceiving journalism students? Australian Journalism Review, 32 2 , Cunningham, S. Park Eds. Department of Communications and the Arts Media control and ownership. Policy Background Paper No. Job Outlook—Journalists and other writers. What is journalism? Professional identity and ideology of journalists reconsidered. Journalism, 6 4 , Flew, T. Convenience, loyal, and customising users: a survey of the behaviours and intentions of young online news users in Australia.
Australian Journalism Review, 33 2 , Forde, S. The changing face of the Australian newsroom: Cultural and ethnic diversity among Sydney journalists. Australian Journalism Review, 27 2 , Green, K. Journalism education: Towards a better understanding. Australian Journalism Review, 27 1 , Australia needs journalism education accreditation. Mapping journalism cultures across nations: A comparative study of 18 countries. Hanusch, F. Henningham, J. Why and how journalists should be professionalised. Australian Journalism Review, 11, Australian journalists.
Weaver Ed. Cresskill, NJ. Herbert, J. Just think of it as peer review: Industry accreditation will protect the future. Australian Journalism Review, 24 2 , Hirst, M. Jakubowicz, A. Media of the people: broadcasting community media in Australia. Positioning journalism research and journalism education in times of change.
Australian Journalism Review, 29 1 , Journalism Research Australia National Statement. Chilled journalism? Defamation and public speech in U. New Zealand Sociology, 23 2 , Loo, E. Contextualising the teaching of journalism. Asia Pacific Media Educator, 17, iii-iv. Lloyd, C. Schultz Eds. St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.
Markson, S. Uni degrees in indoctrination. The Australian, McCallum, K. Researching journalism and diversity in Australia: History and policy. Professions education. Alkin Ed. Nash, C. Evaluating the next generation of news makers: What employers want and universities provide. BA Honors Thesis. Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Graduate qualities and journalism curriculum renewal: Balancing tertiary expectations and industry needs in a changing environment.
The other 66 per cent? Rethinking the labour market for journalism graduates. Australian Journalism Review, 21 1 , The odd couple? Academic research and journalism education. Journalism education. Griffen-Foley Ed. North Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing. Australian Journalism Review, 37 1 , Australian Journalism Review, 37 2 , Journalism at the speed of bytes: Australian Newspapers in the 21st century.
Oliver, B. Benchmarking journalism courses with a focus on graduate employability. Melbourne: Australian Universities Quality Agency. Patching, R. Development of journalism courses in Australia: Some preliminary findings. Asia Pacific Media Educator, 1, Phillips, G. Media International Australia, , Putnis, P. Communication and media studies in Australian universities: An investigation into the growth, status, and future of this field of study. Canberra: University of Canberra. Richards, I.
Assessing our history: two decades of Australian Journalism Review. Australian Journalism Review, 19 1 , Ricketson, M. All things to everyone: Expectations of tertiary journalism education. AsiaPacific Media Educator, 10, Media students gain critical skills at uni. Scanlon, C. All those journalism graduates … all these jobs. Understanding journalism. London: Sage. Skehan, J. A year review: The Australian media and responses to reporting suicide and mental illness. Stuart, C.
Development of journalism education in Australia to PhD Thesis. University of Wollongong, Wollongong. Tanner, S. The press. Turnbull Eds. Turner, G. The ERA and journalism research. Vatsikopoulos, H. The Conversation. Young people, social media and connective action: from organisational maintenance to everyday political talk. Journal of Youth Studies, 18 1 , Table 1. Activities include investigative journalism, continuing education and research, and debate on areas of concern to journalists. Commonwealth regulatory authority responsible for broadcasting, radio communications, telecommunications, and online content since July 1, Represents indigenous media, including remote community radio and television facilities, 25 urban and regional radio stations, and a commercial television service.
Professional association for Australian and South Pacific journalism educators that aims to improve journalism teaching, research, and professional links. A weekly program on national, non-commercial television, set up in , to critique journalist practices. Emphasis on preparing graduates for successful media careers within a constantly changing environment. Offers a comprehensive program, including cutting-edge online journalism options such as reporting, editing, and production.
The one-year J-School diploma gives students the knowledge and skills to apply for an entry-level position in journalism. Some journalists are seen as national leaders, others as untrustworthy. Nevertheless, journalism is deeply rooted in Chilean history. Although it lasted only a year, this weekly spread liberal ideas by publishing fragments of speeches taken from both the French and American revolutions. Chilean journalism was founded on activism for personal freedoms and against colonial mindsets.
Inspired by this law, many journalists left activism and wrote mainly about philosophical and cultural issues Santa Cruz, Early Chilean journalists were mostly bohemians who learned the trade by working in the media. It was not until that the first journalism schools were created in response to a need for quality control and ethical standards. While academia brought professional attitudes and standards to the field, the tension between objective newsgathering and political activism never quite disappeared. In past decades, journalism education has spread throughout the country. But its standards are very dissimilar.
For many schools, teaching journalism requires only mastering some basic skills, while others strive to develop a very updated, scholarly curriculum. This chapter will outline the state of journalism in Chile before focusing on the state of journalism education nationwide. In this manner, it will put journalism education, and its many challenges, in context. There are almost no legal impediments for media ownership or for foreign investors in communications. The only exceptions are that the same geographical area cannot have two broadcast TV stations belonging to the same owner. In addition, the government or the National Television Council gives radio and TV stations the right to broadcast for a certain number of years.
A corporate body independently governs this network, which is funded through advertising only. They also argue that journalists are too dependent on official and anonymous sources and fail to practice rigorous, in-depth reporting. Journalists believe that poor news coverage is the main challenge they currently face Universidad Alberto Hurtado [UAH], In the last few years this tendency has reversed: Journalism is now playing a significant role in improving democratic standards via demanding ethical behavior in political and economic. Significant public and private improvements have also taken place to improve journalistic coverage.
For example, a Transparency Law was enacted in to reinforce press freedom and to secure public access to government documents www. And two additional online media organizations also compete to reveal news not covered by traditional media: El Mostrador www. Television is by far the most popular Chilean mass medium. In Chile there are six broadcast networks www. TV is now facing major changes due to the introduction of digital television and ownership shifts.
Accordingly, television channels previously owned by the state and universities are now owned by private investors. Digital television broadcasting, started in , should be fully established in Television, including the public network TVN, is fully funded by advertising. Although news programming is very popular, public educators, politicians, and audiences often criticize its quality. Both are pay-cable offerings. Radio is popular among Chilean news audiences. The top news radio. Most of the stations are primarily dedicated to music.
Regional radio is well established and plays a significant role in social development, especially in remote areas. Aside from the traditional media with their own websites, there are several online news media outlets successfully attracting audiences, especially the well informed, such as El Mostrador created in and CIPER created in Chileans also lead Latin American visits to business and financial sites, in numbers similar to that in developed countries ComScore, Citizen journalism played a significant role during the Feb.
Eight months later, 57 news sites existed—12 linked into a citizen journalism network—relying on some 7, citizen journalists for coverage of events. Today social media have also taken a significant, popular place in Chilean society. For example, a survey of journalists found that although That said, employers are more likely to hire beginning journalists who possess new technology skills, even though many journalism schools only have traditional technical abilities.
There is a large number of journalists in Chile: around 12, in a country of some 17 million people. Journalists are considered more culturally liberal and critical than average citizens. Since a degree in journalism is not required to work in a newsroom, other professionals, especially lawyers and economists, are sometimes hired as journalists. Nevertheless, journalism graduates hold the majority of newsroom jobs, including media management positions. Although a Chilean journalism association, Colegio de Periodistas, has existed since , Chilean journalists are not strongly committed to collective action.
Similarly, entrepreneurs have founded a council for media ethics see Table 2. Average journalism salaries have declined compared to salaries in similar professions. Around 1, graduates enter the journalism profession every year. Many journalism students are enrolled in post-graduate studies in Chile or abroad; some of them even choose academia as their future career.
While traditional media jobs are shrinking, corporate communications and consulting jobs are booming. The average salary for these new jobs is almost double that of traditional media positions, so students are very attracted to them. The government is also hiring journalists for communication and public relations jobs Torres, , and politicians hire them as communication advisors.
As in every pluralistic country, Chilean journalists perceive their role in many different ways watchdogs, agents for development, political activists, etc. Chilean law rules that journalism can only be taught at universities since a degree for any profession, not just journalism is mandatory for a media professional or any other professional to enter a field. Once considered an elite profession that required very high test scores and generated only a few graduates every year, programs have rapidly expanded to meet student demands. Just over two decades ago, only four schools offered journalism studies.
Today, 31 of 54 universities www. However, some of them lack the appropriate academic staff to ensure quality. Although the normal pathway to enter the journalism profession is through academia, there are no legal requirements for the curricula,. There are also no requirements regarding what to teach in a journalism curriculum or how to teach journalism or any other subject. Universities are deeply aware of their academic independence.
Accordingly, a lack of requirements, along with almost no official information released on journalism school practices, makes it difficult to trace program trends. However, studies show there tend to be seven types or groupings of courses in journalism curricula, which offer everything from introductory courses striving to correct high school deficiencies to those teaching specialized research skills.
The remaining five groupings are: technological skills The academic task of journalism education is interpreted in extremely different ways. Some schools attempt to prepare reporters for entry-level jobs with some liberal arts courses and only a few technology classes, limited by the high cost of setting up appropriate labs. Most schools rely on sociology and mass communications as the basic cognate disciplinary fields.
Other schools, in keeping with Chilean journalism tradition, focus on teaching political and critical approaches to society and professional skills. Critical thinking is considered essential for training journalists, so much so that lawyers and economists are often hired to teach students such skills. Following European tradition, almost all schools offer a semes-.
Some schools have created a number of elective courses or elective specialization tracks. In an attempt to quickly update journalism education, most current curricula have included communication theory and technology courses and computer labs.
Some others have made huge investments in new technologies. However, less than one fourth of schools have taken on innovative leadership roles in journalism education. To increase job opportunities, many schools prepare students to work in any medium or content area, as well as in corporate communications and public relations. This approach leads mostly to a focus on reporting and writing skills and is primarily responsible for extended studies. In , enrollment in journalism programs peaked at 8, students.
Five years later, in , this number had decreased Both historically and currently, journalism students tend to be female Cavallo, As of , Journalism faculty are scarce and expensive to train. Accordingly, many schools offer teaching programs supported by mostly part-time. In , overall faculty size was estimated at professors: Most full-time faculty work at older, more traditional universities.
Journalists do not often pursue postgraduate studies, allegedly due to little economic incentive. Regardless, the number doing so has recently increased. Chilean academic tradition, unlike that in the rest of Latin America, is for students to enter postgraduate studies abroad— especially the stronger students pursuing doctoral degrees. Government competitive scholarships and special loans are available under certain conditions www. Chilean universities only began offering their own doctorate degrees during the past few decades, most of them in scientific areas.
The only doctoral program in Chile is at UC. Skills-training courses are not very popular, and the media do not encourage them: Some All students then take a UAI-approved media internship of their choice. Two levels of accreditation are available: one for each institution, and one for each program. It first earned it over a decade ago. It is not easy to characterize journalism research within journalism programs, let alone how journalism research compares to research conducted in other academic disciplines.
As in any academic area, the most valued journalism research strives to generate knowledge within the discipline. That said, journalism schools also consider as research the following: in-depth reporting, surveys, and polls or focus groups related to the profession, the media, or different aspects of communication. Some universities have created research centers with either dependent or independent statuses from their schools. These research centers primarily aim to either reinforce brand positioning or serve as consulting agencies in communication issues. They often join strategic associations with researchers and public or private institutions Dittus, , as well as partnerships on national or international projects.
The funds are allocated to different disciplines, with the sciences receiving most of them. Journalism, which does not belong to its own designated discipline, splits a small budget with sociology. In , this grouping approved and funded only 23 projects out of Only some 22 journalism, media, or communication-related projects, which underwent a blind review with national and international peers, have been funded during the last decade.
In CONICYT created a small grant to support applied studies about pluralism in the press and radio, including research dealing with media agendas and media income. Up to two such studies, quantitative or qualitative, are supported each year for up to approximately U. One such field is technology, through which communication projects can qualify. Two of these projects are aimed at modeling the information and communication management processes taking place—in the case of journalism, a multiplatform newsroom.
Research must lead to publication. However, few. Dayton, Ohio: Kettering Foundation Press, Gillmor, Dan. Glasser, Theodore Lewis and Cole C. The Idea of Public Journalism. New York: Guilford Press, The Hartford Courant Staff. Harwood, Richard C. Haas, Tanni.
Koch, Tom. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Lambeth, Edmund B. Committed Journalism: An Ethic for the Profession. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Meyer and Esther Thorson, eds. Assessing Public Journalism. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, Lappe, Frances M. The Quickening of America. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Lauterer, Jock. Community Journalism , 3rd ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, Lichtenberg, Judith. New York: Cambridge University Press, Merrill, John C. Gade and Frederick R. Merritt, Davis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, Merritt, Davis and Jay Rosen.
Howard Public Lecture, April 13, Miller, Edward. Patterson, Thomas E. Out of Order. New York: Knopf, Perry, David K. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, Ripley, Jr. The Media and the Public. New York: H. Wilson, Rosen, Jay. Community Connectedness: Passwords for Public Journalism. New York: Twentieth Century Fund, What Are Journalists For?
Rosen, Jay and Davis Merritt, Jr.